LC Refining

Refining is the process by which fibres are mechanically treated to alter their intrinsic properties. In basic terms, paper made from pulp fibre that has not been refined will be poorly bonded, low in strength and porous. Once fibres have been refined they will produce paper that is better bonded, has higher tensile strength and is less porous. In this discussion we are considering low-consistency refining as is routinely practiced on paper machines.

How to Refine our Pulps

Most users of our pulps wish to maximize the reinforcing contribution of the fibres, and this means they are trying to develop the best tensile strength without shortening the fibres or slowing down the paper-machine drainage. More »

Intensity of Refining

The traditional way of characterizing the process of refining was through net Specific Refining Energy (SRE), calculated as the useful energy imparted to the stock after allowing for the no load energy needed to run the refiner. More »

Characterizing Refining

When the intensity per impact is high and the number of impacts low, it is common to refer to the refining operation as being "high intensity". More »

Refining Seminars Videos and Downloads (Requires Login)

To understand the importance and complexity of LC refining, the following video series presented by Professor Richard Kerekes provides cornerstone information for both new and experienced engineers and operators.
More »